REPAIR - REMODEL.COM This site to do it yourself and homeowners covering all aspects of residential home, business building repair and remodeling, and renovation projects . Featuring tips, advice, how-to and step-by-step information to help you maintain and improve the value of your business building and home.


In depth information on do it yourself home property maintenance, covering all aspects of residential home, commercial, business, and apartment building repair, remodeling, and renovation projects Featuring tips, advice, how-to and step-by-step information to help you maintain and improve the value of your business building and home.

Home | Site  Map | Ozone Generator | Search | Contact Us |Link Directory | Workplace Mold | Air Conditioning Mold

| Mold  Advice Books | Mold Test Kits | Mold Lab Services | Mold Cleaner & Killer |
| Video Inspection Scope | Mold Training | Mold Legal Forms | Mold Attorney | 
| Visa for USA Immigration |  Marriage Matchmaking Service |  FREE Mold Advice Hotline  
| DIY Mold Removal | Do It Yourself Mold Removal | DIY Mold |

 Building a Roof - An Introduction

These pages detail the building of a roof. Just think of building a roof as being made up of many, small, easily accomplished steps.


As you exercise your do it yourself skills, develop safe work habits and stick to them.
Work patiently. If you become confused, frustrated or in too much of a hurry, chances are greater that mistakes will be made or that accidents will happen.

Read and follow the specific safety rules of every tool and material you will be using.

Unplug tools when changing blades or making adjustments.

Wear heavy soled boots on any construction site; rubber soles when working on the roof; gloves while handling lumber; and protective eyewear whenever power tools are in operation.

Wear ear protection when using power tools as some operate at levels that can damage hearing.
Tie long hair back so as not to catch it accidentally in power tools.

Keep work surfaces and traffic areas free from scraps and debris.

Select the appropriate tool for the job and keep all tools sharp and in good working condition.

If an object is too heavy or awkward, get assistance in moving it; bend from the knees when picking up large and heavy items.

Hard hats are recommended when working under or around overhead construction.

Use scaffolding when working on high places. The added stress of manipulating heavy and unwieldy tresses and sheathing can cause you to lose your balance. Be careful where you step; move slowly and with caution.

Be sure no one is standing below the work unless absolutely necessary.
Be extra careful working around glass - one wrong move can cause serious injury and/or necessitate replacing a costly item.

Use the proper protection, take precautions and plan ahead. Never bypass safety to save money or rush a project.


Roofing - Trusses

Ordering the Trusses

Roof framing ranges from the simplicity of prefabricated roof trusses to the complexity of cutting and assembling a complex roof design from scratch. This pamphlet will cover only the basic truss construction as this is the recommended procedure for novice builders. Roof trusses are a pre-built series of structural members designed to carry the load of the roof to the outside walls.

The structural members are most often 2 x 4's or 2 x 6's. Trusses are ordered through your supply store and built in special factories to your individual specifications; however, home centers and building supply companies stock the standard sizes for most garages. garage kits usually provide the necessary trusses. If you've made some alterations to your roof line, you may need to special order them. Check with your supplier first to see if they have a special truck that can deliver and place the trusses on top of the walls. They may even have a crane truck that can gently lift the trusses and set them in place.

Usually the supplier can deliver everything needed for a roof frame in truss form. If, however, you have a more custom roof line, you may need to build all or part of the frame yourself. Building your own roof frame is also well within reason for the novice although we would advise consulting with local professionals and more detailed carpentry books for more information on rafters.

If you plan to heat the garage and insulation is to be placed between the rafters, the space must be wide enough to provide for the thickness of the insulation. Rafters are placed at 12, 16, or 24 inch intervals. Check your local building code*. The size, spacing and span of the roof rafters must be coordinated to effectively carry a given load weight for your area. This load includes such factors as roofing materials and snow or ice accumulation.

Most Common Mistakes:

Ordering inaccurate trusses.
Neglecting to inspect the trusses upon arrival at the building site.


Your garage plans should include the following information to aid you when ordering the roof trusses:

Size of rafters
Spacing of rafters
Length of overhang
Location and size of ceiling joists
Size of ridge beam and any other bearing beams
Load Weight

Roofing - Layout

Just as you measured for spacing of the wall studs, you will need to measure for, and mark the location of, the roof trusses on the cap plate. Check your local building code* for proper size and spacing.

Most Common Mistakes:

Ordering inaccurate trusses.
Not accounting for overhang and rake rafters.
Placing the rafter on the wrong side of the layout mark.

NOTE: Rafters are doubled to support Rake Rafter



Beginning at one end, drive a nail 3/4" in from the end, hook your measuring tape to the nail, then measure and mark every 24" (or 16"). Place an X on the side of the mark nearest your nail. )
If, in your plans, you have an overhang (rake rafter) on either end of the garage, you will need to adjust the measurement to insure a sheet of plywood beginning at the edge of the overhang (rake) will end in the center of an interior truss.

Metal rafter ties make the installation of trusses easier and more secure.

Roofing - Framing
Most Common Mistakes:
Placing the rafter on the wrong side of the layout mark.
Not plumbing the trusses.


Very carefully lift one end of the rafter truss and carry it up the ladder. Rest it upside down next to the end set of metal rafter ties. Then place the other end into position on the opposing wall.
Slowly and carefully turn the truss right side up and slide it into place. You may find it helpful to nail a 2" x 4" to the truss as a leverage board to swing the rafter upright and into place.

Nail the rafter tie in place over each X where the rafter will connect with the cap plate.
While one person holds a 4'-8' level against each truss and holds it in position, another person nails a temporary brace to the unit across the sloping top chord.
Continue this procedure until all rafters are up and in place.

Roofing - Sheathing the Roof

It is assumed here that you will be applying a plywood, particle board or wafer-board sheathing. If you have chosen to use a rigid roofing (metal, wood shakes or shingles, tile, etc.) you can use 1 x 4 slats instead. With wood roofs, slats are a must to avoid rotting the wood shakes.

Plywood particle board or wafer-board roof sheathing is most commonly used, being low in cost and easy to apply. Choose an exterior C/D grade. Thickness will range from 3/8 to 3/4 inch depending upon local code*. When ordering the sheathing, divide the total number of square feet of roof surface by 32 square feet (a 4' x 8' panel) and add an extra 15% for waste. An air compressor with a nail gun will come in handy for nailing large flat areas like this.

Most Common Mistakes:

Not staggering the seams of the sheathing.
Aligning sheathing with the edge of the roof rather Than perpendicular to the rafters.
Attaching the sheathing wrong side up.
Inadequate nailing.
Panels not meeting in the center of a truss or a rafter.


Check the rafter ends (tails) to be sure they are all on a straight line. If the walls are crooked, the rafter tails will also be crooked. Try to correct this problem; but if you are unable to, pop a chalk line across the rafter tails and trim them with your saw before attaching the sheathing. This is crucial because this building line will be a very noticeable one when viewed from below.

Begin applying the sheets from the bottom of the roof (the eaves) and work your way up to the ridge. The last course at the top may need to be rip cut if the roof is not in 4 foot increments. It is important here that the sheathing at the eave line be exactly perpendicular to the rafters so that the sheets will meet at the centers of the rafters it is even more important that it be perpendicular than that it is flush with the rafter tails.

A tapered piece of sheathing can be cut to fill in at the eave if necessary. Usually, code, which can vary locally, requires nails every 6 inches on the edge and 12 inches in the field. Pop a chalk line across the sheets to 'mark the centers of the rafters for a nailing guide. Do not nail the edge rafters where the sheathing meets until the adjoining sheet is in place. This will enable you to move the rafter a bit if needed, so that the sheathing meets in the center of the rafter.

Stagger the joints of each course of sheathing. This can be done efficiently by cutting a panel in half and using these half sheets to start every other course. Special metal plywood clips will add stability to the splices where the sheets meet between rafters. Carefully work your way up to the peak of the roof. Check for alignment and end support as you go. For safety, temporarily nail a 2 x 4 "toe board" horizontally across the lower panel of sheathing to brace yourself against as you add the second and subsequent courses of sheathing.

Sheath one slope of the roof at a time, ripping the top course to the needed width at the ridge. When one slope is completely sheathed, pop a chalk line down any slope edge (as in a hip roof) that needs to be cut at an angle. You may prefer to cut these panels before you nail them in place.
Set your circular saw to the correct depth and angle for cutting along the edge and saw off the excess overhang.

Roofing - Soffits


Most Common Mistakes:

Rafter tails (ends) not in a perfectly straight line.




For those of you with an overhang to your roof line, you'll want to apply a flat soffit to the underside of the overhang. Begin by snapping a level chalk line on the wall around the entire building. The chalk-line should correspond to the height of the bottom end of the rafter tails. This will be the guideline to which you will attach the 1 x 4 ledger board.

Attach the ledger board with 16d HDG nails. The bottom of the ledger should be on the chalk line. Nail 2 x 4's level from the rafter tails, toe-nailed into the ledger board to create a frame at 24 inches on   center. (Joist hangers can also be used to attach the 2 x 4's to the ledger).

Measure and cut exterior grade plywood to the width of the soffit and nail it to the framing with 8d HDG nails.
Nail a 1 x 6 facia board to seal and trim the end grain of the rafter tails.
A crown molding added on top of the facia will dress up the facia but should be attached so it will line up smoothly with the slope of the roof.

Roofing - Felt

Applying the Roofing Felt

Roofing felt acts as a waterproof barrier between the sheathing and the roofing material (shingles, etc.). We recommend using 15-30 lb. roofing felt. It is necessary to apply the roofing felt (tar paper) to a clean, dry surface immediately after the sheathing is completed to protect it from the weather. If, however, this is not possible and the sheathing gets wet, allow it to dry for a couple of days before applying the felt so as not to trap any moisture that may cause damage to the sheathing. Felting applications vary according to the type of roofing so determine the proper application before beginning.

Most Common Mistakes:

Applying felt to a wet surface.
Not overlapping the layers.
Not applying smoothly.


If you have chosen to apply a metal drip edge along the eaves, this must be in place before laying the felt. A drip edge is usually made of 26 gauge galvanized steel with a top flange of 3 to 4 inches that extends in from the roof edge.

In heavy rain or snow areas we also recommend eave flashing, a strip of smooth or mineral faced roll roofing. This is cut to extend from the edge of the roof to a point 12 inches inside the wall line. Place the lower edge of the strip even with the drip edge.

The roofing felt is then applied in accordance with the type of roofing to be used. We will assume here that you are using asphalt shingles. Snap horizontal lines on the roof sheathing to align the upper edge of the felt. Snap the first line at 35 and 5/8 inches above the eave. (The 36" felt should overlap the eave by 3/8".) Snap succeeding lines at 34 inch intervals, assuring a 2 inch overlap of each course.

The felt must be flush at the rake (side) edges, have 4 inch overlaps where two pieces are joined, and 6 inch overlaps on hips and ridges.

Ensure that the felt lies flat and smooth before securing it.

Tack the roofing felt down with 1/4" staples using an air compressor with a pneumatic stapler, a hammer-tacker, or a staple gun every 12 inches.

Roofing - Shingles

Applying Asphalt Shingles


Composite (asphalt) or fiberglass shingles is the most common roofing now in use. It is composed of asphalt impregnated paper with mineral granules coating the exposed surface. Numerous colors and styles are available to enhance the design of your garage. Shingles are easy to install, require little maintenance and are easy to repair. Wind sealed shingles have an added dab of roofing cement under the bottom edge of each shingle. After these are installed and the roof is heated by the sun, the cement melts and sticks to the shingle below, increasing their effectiveness in high wind areas or on shallow sloped roofs.

Most Common Mistakes:

Leaving out the starter strip.
Not keeping shingles aligned.
Not overhanging shingles at eaves and rakes.
Neglecting to stagger joints.
Installing ridge shingles before hip shingles.
Neglecting to keep hip and ridge shingles in a straight line.


If you are using a drip edge, the starter course goes on TOP of the drip edge at the eaves (bottom) and UNDER the drip edge at the rakes (sides). The starter course applied at the eaves is a standard row of composite asphalt shingles with three inches cut off the tab (bottom) ends. [You could also use a 9 inch wide strip of roll flooring.] These are installed in an inverted position. The tabs face the ridge, the wind seal is down, and the mineral surface is exposed to the weather.

Overhang the eave by 1/2 inch and leave a space of 1/16 inch between each shingle. Nail each starter shingle with four 12 galvanized roofing nails placed three inches above the eaves - one inch and twelve inches from each end of the shingle.

The first full size course of shingles is installed DIRECTLY ON TOP of the starter course but with the tabs facing down towards the eaves. Nail the first and subsequent courses using four nails per shingle, placed 5 and 5/8 inches above the butt or bottom line (5/8" above the top of each cutout). Again, drive a nail one inch and 12 inches from each end.

To prevent the shingles from buckling, begin nailing each shingle from the end next to the previously laid shingle. Leave a gap of 1/16" between shingles. For the remaining courses, we recommend popping a vertical chalk line on the roofing felt every 36 inches and a horizontal chalk line every 10 inches. This will enable you to align the top and side edges of each shingle along a straight line.

The joints between the tabs must continue to be staggered. This means the joints (cutouts) must not be aligned in adjacent courses. To do this, cut 6 inches off the first shingle of the second course at the rake (side) of the slope. Cut 12 inches (one full tab) off the third course, 18 inches off the fourth course, 24

inches (2 full tabs) off the fifth course, and begin the sixth course with just a 6 inch length of shingle. Repeat this sequence beginning with a full length shingle on the 7th course.

Once the flat planes of the roof have been shingled, you will need to apply the hip shingles, if you have a hip roof, which will be overlapped by the ridge shingles. Gable roofs will only have ridge shingles. These can be purchased prefabricated or can be cut from standard shingles - one 12 inch tab from a standard shingle, folded in the middle as shown in.

Pop chalk lines 6 inches on each side of the hip and/or ridge centerlines. These will be the guidelines for the edges of the shingles.

Start at the eaves of the hip, with a double layer of shingles, and work your way up to the ridge using the standard 5 inch exposure. Nail once on each side, 5 and 1/2 inches above the butt of each shingle. Where the hip intersects at the ridge, cut 4 inches up the center of a tab and nail this so that the uncut portion is nailed to the ridge and the 4 inch slit overlaps and is nailed to the top of the hip, covering the last of the hip shingles.

Begin applying the ridge shingles at the ends, working each end toward the center nailing a saddle tab where they meet. Nail the saddle in all four corners.

Cover any exposed nails with roofing cement and you are finished.

Roofing - Tools and Materials Checklist


Canvas Nails Belt
Tape Measures: 33' and 16 to 20'
20-24 oz. Framing Hammer
16 oz. Claw Hammer
Combination Square
Carpenter's Framing Square
Carpenter's Level
Nail Puller
Set of Wrenches
Electric Drill
Circular Saw
Chalk Line
Sturdy Ladder(s)
Saw Horses
Carpenter's Pencils and/or Felt Tipped Pen
Hand Saw
Plumb Bob
Air Compressor w/Nail Gun and Staple Gun
Finish Hammer
Nail Set
Caulking Gun
Tin Snip
Pre-fabricated Roof Trusses
Exterior Plywood
Metal Flashing
Drip Edge
Composite Asphalt Shingles

12 GA. Galvanized Roofing Nails
Metal Fasteners
Rafter Ties Plywood
Sheathing Clips


Asphalt Shingles: The Wood and Tile Alternative

Years ago, most homes were built with either wood shake, slate or clay roofs. These materials were very durable and handsome when installed. Over time, roofing manufacturers developed less expensive options to these traditional roofing materials. The result was asphalt roofing shingles that sometimes detracted from a home's character and overall look.

Now manufacturers have improved both the look and performance of asphalt shingles. Following is some information about the available styles and features available:

Improved Materials

Many manufacturers of asphalt shingles have taken great measures to improve the look of shingles, while also increasing the durability and lifespan of their products. Stronger materials and more natural looking materials have made asphalt shingle roofing a good, economical choice. When looking for shingles for your roofing project, you can match the original look of your home, without having to jeopardize your children's college education savings.


When selecting new roofing shingles, think of the style of your home. If your house originally had wooden shingles, maybe a brown colored asphalt shingle would work best. If you are replacing slate with asphalt shingles, you are in luck. Many manufacturers now make slate look-alike shingles that will not detract from the style of your home. Tile is a bit harder to duplicate, however, many manufacturers make clay or light brown colored shingles that can take the place of a costly tile roof.

Unlike a few years ago, homeowners don't have to settle for monotone shingle colors. Most manufacturers have designed subtle color variations into these new products, giving the shingles a more natural look. Layering processes also add a dimensional look to the tiles, making them appear like real wood or slate.

Look at Samples

If you are having trouble deciding on the right look for your house, consult with your roofing contractor. He or she will have experience with different roofing materials and shingle styles. They can provide samples of shingles in a variety of colors that you can see next to your home.

Save pictures from design magazines of looks you are considering for your home. This can help your contractor visualize the style you have in mind.
Once you have decided on a shingle style and color, prepare to have the exterior of your home looking years younger in just a few days!

Bad Case of the Shingles

If your roof's wood shingles took some weather damage this year, replacing broken shingles is a fine project or a summer day.

Remove broken shingles, which can be split with a chisel and extracted in bits.

Flatten the roofing nails left behind by nudging a pry bar over each nail's head and tapping the bar with a hammer.

Fit the new wood shingles by trimming a matching shingle one quarter-inch shorter than the old one (to allow for expansion), and place the shingle so it runs a little below the adjacent shingles.

Secure it with two nails hammered flush, at a 45-degree angle just below the next highest row of shingles. Drive the replacement shingle into line by tapping upwards on a block of wood placed flat along the shingle's bottom edge. The new nails will neatly disappear from sight, tucked under the lip of the next-highest shingle.

Laying Shingles In Roof Valleys

The following step-by-step instructions can make your shingle project easier. Take a few minutes to read the instructions carefully before starting, and you can save time, money and effort while completing a better job.
A roof valley is formed where two roofs join at an angle. You must be careful when shingling in this area - an improperly laid roof valley can easily develop leaks.

Valleys should be covered with a mineral-surfaced, roll roofing material (Fig. 1).
Place an 18" wide strip or metal flashing down the center of the valley, from the eaves to the top of the ridge.

Nail this material down on the outer edges only, making sure that it stays flat in the valley.

Place roofing cement along each edge. Next, lay a 36" wide strip of the roofing material down on top of the previous strip, and nail its outer edges.

Snap two chalk lines down the edge of the valley. Start at the ridge, with the lines centered in the valley and 6" apart. As you move down the roof, spread the lines apart, about 1/8" per foot, down to the eaves.
Now you're ready to apply shingles. Lay them down to the edge of the chalk lines, and cut them to fit (Fig.

Place the end of each shingle in roofing cement to seal it before nailing it into position. Do not nail shingles closer than 6" to the chalk lines.

Tools & Materials Needed:

Carpenter's Apron
#15 Felt Roofing
Ridge Shingles
Asphalt Roofing Cement
Copper or Aluminum Flashing Material
Soft Soled Shoes
Clean-up Cloth
Roofing Nails
Chalk Line
#90 Mineral Surface Roofing
Tin Snaps
Work Gloves
Safety Rope
Hand Cleaner


Replace a Cap on a Wood-Shingled Roof

A pitched roof must be capped along the ridge (peak) where two roof planes intersect. If you have a roof leak at or along a roof peak, you'll need to replace the cap. With wood shingles this is done with shingles or 1x6 cedar boards. With shakes (a thicker shingle that is either hand split or sawn), taper-sawn shakes are used rather than boards.

The work of cutting and installing the cap itself is relatively easy, provided you are comfortable working on your roof. Exercise extreme caution when working on a wood roof. Never walk on a wet roof, which can be very slippery. A proper ladder setup is essential, and wearing a roof harness (a rental item) is strongly recommended.

Materials Needed:

Extension ladder
Pry bar
Single ladder section and ladder brace
Roof harness (rental item)
Nail pouch with hammer hook
Tape measure
30-lb. roof felt or roll of 8-in. metal flashing
#1 red cedar shingles or 1x6 cedar
Galvanized roofing nails
Utility knife, metal straightedge, block plane (for shingles)
3-in. galvanized box nails (for shingles)
Circular saw (for boards)
3-in. ring-shank galvanized box nails (for boards)

Goggles and gloves

1.Set up Your Ladders: Set your ladder against the house eaves so it extends a few feet above the roof. This allows you to step safely from the ladder to the roof surface with a handhold on the top of the ladder.

Tip: Once you are straddling the ridge you are quite safe on a roof, but getting there from the eaves can be quite risky. The safest approach is to place a single ladder section (called a chicken ladder) flat on the roof, extending from the eaves to the ridge and hooked over the ridge. You can rent a specially equipped ladder for this purpose, or you may be able to purchase a ladder brace accessory. Rent a roof harness for personal safety.

Having a helper on a second ladder that extends directly from the ground to the ridge makes the job both easier and safer, since the helper can bring needed materials up the ladder and eliminate trips up and down the roof.

2. Prepare the Materials: If you are using shingles or shakes: Cut the quantity needed, uniformly 3 to 5 inches wide. Unless you have a table saw the best approach is to use a straightedge to guide a utility knife, and score and break the shingle. Then clean up and bevel the edges with a block plane.

If you are using ridge boards: The top edge of each board may need to be ripped (cut along a board's length) with a circular saw or on a table saw to create a bevel that mimics that of the roof plane. This is not necessary for a 1/4-pitch roof because the two roof planes meet at a 90-degree angle. Any end joints should also be beveled with a miter cut.

3. Remove the Old Cap: Remove the ridge boards or shingle cap with a pry bar and either pull or drive flush any nail heads. Work carefully to avoid damaging the underlying roof shingles.

Tip: Collect scraps in an old bucket or cardboard box to avoid cleanup that would be needed if you just let the scraps slide down the roof into a gutter or onto the ground.

4. Flash the Ridge: Roll out 8-in. wide metal flashing or 30-lb. roofing felt over the ridge and secure it with roofing nails along the lower edge every few feet on each side of the ridge.

 5. Install a Shingle Cap: 5a. Begin at one end with a double course. Apply these and the remaining shingles to alternating sides so each pair overlaps at the peak. If necessary use a block plane to bevel the mating edges for a tight joint prior to nailing with 3-inch galvanized box nails (or nails twice as long as those required to install the shingles on the field of the roof). The nails must extend entirely through the sheathing. Use two nails per shingle, nailing so they will fall 1 inch above the exposed portion of the shingle. The exposure should match that of the rest of the roof.

5b. Work your way along the ridge to about the midpoint; then start from the other end.

5c. As you get about 6 feet away from the already installed cap, measure and adjust the exposure as needed to make sure that the remaining courses all have about the same exposure.

5d. Cut off the thin end of the last three courses to prevent excessive buildup. (The dimensions shown in the drawing are for an 18-in. shingle with 5-in. exposure.)

6. Install Ridge-Board Cap: 6a. Install the first board so the end is flush with the rake edge of the shingles and its long edge is even with the ridge. Nail through the board into the sheathing at rafter locations if possible, using two nails every 16-24 inches according to rafter spacing. Use ring-shank 3-inch galvanized or stainless steel box nails for maximum holding power and rust-resistance.

Tip: As you work your way along the ridge, position a scrap of 1x6 "cap" on the opposite roof plane and bring the board that you are installing up tight to the scrap before nailing. This will assure a tight joint when the other half of the cap is installed.

6b. After verifying that the two boards will joint nicely without additional planning, secure the second board the same way. Drive all nails flush with the surface but do not countersink them, as that would create water-trapping depressions.

6c. If a single board length will not cover the entire ridge, join the ends of boards with a miter joint (precut in Step 2). Tack or hold the miter joint together while you or a helper mark the other end for cutting. Then complete the installation.


Shingling Around Chimneys

The following step-by-step instructions can make your shingle project easier. Take a few minutes to read the instructions carefully before starting, and you can save time, money and effort while completing a better job.
Place mineral-surfaced roofing material or aluminum flashing around the edge of a chimney before shingles are positioned.

On older roofs, you can use the old flashings for a pattern. On new roofs, use Fig. 9 as a guide for cutting the flashing.
Fit the new flashing around the base of the chimney, then cement and nail it into place.
Cut flashing strips into pieces measuring 7" x 10", then bend them in
half to 7" x 5".
Place these flashing strips against the chimney, seal the edge with roofing cement, and nail into place.
Apply shingles up to the edge of the chimney, seal the edge with roofing cement, and nail the shingles near the edge of the flashings (Fig. 10).

Tools and Materials Needed:

Carpenter's Apron
#15 Felt Roofing
Ridge Shingles
Asphalt Roofing Cement
Copper or Aluminum Flashing Material
Soft Soled Shoes
Clean-up Cloth
Roofing Nails
Chalk Line
#90 Mineral Surface Roofing
Tin Snaps
Work Gloves
Safety Rope
Hand Cleaner

Shingling Hip Roofs

What is a hip roof?, you ask. No, it's not a roof that's into the latest fashion and music. Actually, you've seen it a million times, you just didn't know there's a name for it. A hip roof is gable roof with the ends brought together at the same pitch as the rest of the roof. Now you know what it find out how to shingle it.
Step 1: Each course of shingles applied to the hip roof should be continued around the roof .

Add Ice and Water Protection When Re-roofing

By: Paul Bianchina

If reproofing your home is on your upcoming list of projects, there's one additional thing to consider besides the type and color of shingles you're going to use -- ice and water protection. Every roofing material will have some type of felt paper used under it to help the roofing in its fight to ensure a water-tight roof. But ice and water protection goes one step further, and, particularly in areas that are prone to snow buildup and ice damming, this additional protection can mean the difference between a dry attic and the headaches of wet insulation, water-damaged drywall and water stained ceilings.

Ice and water protection products are available wherever roofing products are sold, and are known by a variety of brand names such as Ice and Water Shield. Sold by the roll, these products are made of layered neoprene rubber, often with a granular surface bonded to the top side. The material is designed to be installed in a single row along the eaves of the roof, underneath the felt and shingles.

The idea behind the product is quite simple. In a typical ice-damming situation, snow that has built up on the roof begins to melt from the underside, the result of heat being lost through the home's attic. As this melting occurs, the water runs along under the protective snow layer until it reaches the eaves and overhang at the edge of the roof. Here, where there is no more heat being lost from inside the house, the water freezes and forms a dam of ice, backing up more snow melt behind it. Eventually, the dammed up water can work its way back up the roof and under the shingles, wetting the attic insulation and ceiling drywall.

The ice and water protection layer covers this vulnerable area from the end of the eaves to above where the roof intersects with the outside walls. The rubber layer has no seams or openings, and tightly grips any roofing nails or staples that are driven through it, sealing the fasteners and forming a continuous protective barrier against ice and water migrating or dripping into the attic.

The rolls are three feet wide, which is wide enough to cover the overhangs on a typical house and reach up past the roof/wall intersection. In houses with very wide overhangs or covered porches, two or more overlapping layers of ice and water protection are used – whatever is necessary to get up past the line of the exterior walls. This material is also excellent for use on low-pitched roofs in areas such as porches, sunrooms and shed dormers, and as additional protection in valleys and other particularly vulnerable areas.

There are two basic types of ice and water protection -- self-stick and staple-on. The self-stick material has a protective paper layer on the backside. To install it, first make sure the roof sheathing is clean and dry, then remove and discard the protective paper layer as you roll out the material, pressing it down firmly against the roof sheathing. The staple-on material is rolled out in the same manner, but there is no paper backing to remove, and the product is held in place by stapling it down as you go.

The self-stick material has the advantages of a more uniform seal and a flatter, smoother installation, while the staple-on product is easier to install and is typically less expensive. Both work equally well, and the performance of both products is warranted by the manufacturer as long as it's installed according to the package instructions.

With either product, this is the first component of the roof to be installed. After installation of the ice and water protection, roofing felt is installed over it in the usual manner, followed by the shingles. Ice and water protection can be used under any type of roofing, including three-tab and laminated composition shingles, wood shingles and shakes, and all types of tile.

Ice and water protection is an easy material to install yourself if you're doing your own roofing, and even when installed by a contractor it will only add about $300 to $400 to the cost of the reproofing an average house -- a relatively minor amount when compared to the overall cost of the job, and a very small investment in some very worthwhile protection.

Copyright 2001-2002 Inman News Features. Distributed by Inman News Features


Step 2: Trim each shingle to the angle of the hip ridge.
Step 3: Use regular hip shingles or cut standard shingles (three-cut) to cover the hip ridge. Cover the hip ridge before the main roof ridge
Step 4: Start at the eave, and apply hip shingles at the same exposure as the main roof. Use two shingles to start the run on the hip ridge (Fig. 13). Use four nails per shingle and leave no nails exposed.
Step 5: When placing the last hip shingle on the main ridge, seal it with roofing cement and nail it into position.

Tools and Materials Needed:

Carpenter's Apron
#15 Felt Roofing
Ridge Shingles
Asphalt Roofing Cement
Copper or Aluminum Flashing Material
Soft Soled Shoes
Clean-up Cloth
Roofing Nails
Chalk Line
#90 Mineral Surface Roofing
Tin Strips
Work Gloves
Safety Rope
Hand Cleaner

Why Roofs Leak

By: Arrol Gellner

The root purpose of every dwelling (one that dates back millennia) is to provide shelter from the elements. Hence, an architect's most fundamental charge is to design a weather tight building.
Unhappily, it doesn't always work out that way. One of the most common complaints I hear is, why can't architects design homes that don't leak?'

The embarrassing fact is that leaky roofs are endemic to architecture, whether modern or traditional, and the caliber of the architect makes little difference. The occupants of Frank Lloyd Wright's most celebrated houses have been obliged to drag out buckets, bowls, and soup cans in many a rainstorm. Or as a colleague of mine once put it: 'They don't call it falling water' for nothing'.

For their part, architects are notoriously adept at brushing off the leak problem. Wright once received a call from an irate client who complained that the roof was leaking all over her dinner guests.
Tell him to move his chair,' he responded. To the complaint of another waterlogged client, he calmly declared: 'If it didn't leak, it wouldn't be a roof.'

At least Wright fessed up to these shortcomings, however nonchalantly; the same can't be said for the famed International Style architect Le Corbusier. Early in his career, he designed a building with a conventional pitched roof. At the first snowfall, it leaked like a sieve; due, it seems, to his own inexperience. In a classic piece of Modernist logic, however, Corbu concluded that the whole concept of pitched roofs must be flawed, and thereafter espoused flat roofs instead.

Ah, poor posterity!
Given that architects have such a hard time designing watertight roofs, what chance does a layperson have? You'd be surprised. Here are a few simple, common-sense suggestions that can help minimize the likelihood of leaks:

Keep the roof design as simple as possible. Leaks seldom occur out in the middle of a roof's flat surfaces or field', in roofing parlance. Rather, they tend to develop in the many nooks and crannies formed where roof planes intersect, or where roofs abut walls. Hence, the simpler the design, the fewer the intersections, the lesser the likelihood of leaks. Be especially wary of those craggy alpine roofs capes favored by current architectural fashion. All those cute little peaks and dormers can become a major leakage headache a few years down the road.

Minimize penetrations'. In roofspeak, this term refers to pipes, vents, chimneys, skylights, and any other openings that interrupt the roof's membrane. Like intersections, they're far more likely to develop leaks than the field of the roof. Minimize the number of vents and flues penetrating the roof surface, and use a few large skylights rather than a lot of little ones. And don't locate skylights in roof valleys, where it's difficult to seal or flash' them properly.

Avoid built-up flat' roofs whenever possible. Granted, built-up roofs are cheap, easy to construct, and great for covering oddly shaped floor plans. However, without conscientious maintenance, which they seldom get, built-up roofs simply won't stay watertight. A half-century of painful experience has borne this fact out, suggesting that our pitch-roof loving forebears were probably right after all. Sorry, Le Corbusier.

Roof Inspection and Certification

Many lenders require that roofs be certified when a previously owned home is purchased. Roofing contractors usually inspect the roof, determine if any repairs need to be made, then if possible will certify the roof, usually for two years. If the roof leaks within that period, the roofing company, which certified the roof, will repair the leak free of charge.

Shake roofs that are ten years or older usually need some repair work to be certified. Most roofing contractors will not certify flat roofs because they generally are difficult to repair and often must be replaced. Some roofs are beyond repair, in which case the roofing contractor will advise the home be sold as is or give the seller a bid to replace it.

If a home seller does not disclose previous leaks or damage to the roof and a problem develops, the roofing contractor may refuse to honor a certification to the new homeowner.

Roof Repair Guide

The purpose of the guide is to acquaint the Roofing Contractor with the necessary corrective action to repair deficiencies, observed in the construction of the existing roof at several locations. The repair guide is
intended only as an aid for understanding the scope of the work and is not intended to give a complete description of all the work or materials. The Contractor is to use materials and details as called for in the Architects original specifications, except as amended herein. All dimensions and existing conditions are to be verified by the Contractor. This work is limited in scope.

Roof Edge Detail

A. Installation

1. Provide protective material and methods as required to protect existing building and adjacent surfaces, features, and property.
The Contractor is responsible for any damage resulting from this work.

2. The contractor will install a 6” wide ¼” thick piece of dens deck
along the perimeter roof edge detail followed by A 6” wide ¾ plywood filler strip. Both pieces will be attached at 12” o.c. The
filler strips will be at least flush with the adjacent membrane surface.

3. Install 9” wide strip of Paradiene 20 over the new ½” plywood filler in cold applied adhesive.

4. Furnish and install the new 22 ga. continuous cleat and 24 ga.sheet metal roof edge detail as required. Set the metal roof edge
flange in plastic roofing cement prior to attachment.

5. Install Siplast P20/30 roof membranes at the new roof edge detail and tie into the adjacent roof membrane according to Siplast
installation procedures (See attached Detail).

B. Additional Repairs


1. Increase the opening in the Veral flashing at interior roof drain
locations to increase water flow into the interior drains.

2. Remove and replace any areas of wet roofing materials at the
anomaly locations outlined during the infrared scan. Install new
roofing materials to match existing according to the manufacturers specifications.

3. Check all T-laps on the P 30 granular cap sheet. Rework any open laps to ensure a watertight detail. Repair using appropriate
procedures and materials recommended by Siplast.

4. Replace the discolored Veral with new, if the existing flashing cannot be cleaned without affecting the aluminum foil face
surfacing (Approximately 125 ln.ft.)

Roof Repairs, Replacements, and Coatings

Types of Roofing

The most common types of roofing materials for residential structures are: asphalt shingles, wood shingles and shakes, metal roofs, tile, slate and composite coverings.

ASPHALT ROOFS: This is the most commonly used and least expensive roof covering material and generally has a 20 to 25 year life span. Asphalt roofing materials consist of either a rag fiber or a fiberglass mat impregnated with asphalt and covered with colored mineral granules. A wide variety of designs, weights, colors and sizes are available.

Asphalt roofs show their age when the mineral granules wear off, reveal the black asphalt and the corners and edges of the shingles begin to curl and crack. This is an indication that the asphalt composition has begun to dry out and lose its weather-proof seal. When only a few shingles show the above type of wear, the simple and less costly replacement of worn out shingles may be all that is needed. If one out of every five to ten shingles shows this wear and aging, it is may be time to re-roof.

WOOD SHINGLES AND SHAKES: Shingles made of cedar, cypress or red wood are highly rot-resistant and may last 30 to 35 years if properly installed and maintained. The best wood roofing materials are pressure-treated with wood preservatives. When considering home safety, it is wise to note that wood shingles and shakes are more highly combustible than the other roofing materials available. If a wood shingle is your choice, look for one treated with fire-retardant chemicals.

As wood shingles and shakes age they may shrink and form gaps between each shingle. They may also become brittle and offer less protection from the elements. As is the case with asphalt shingles, if only a few wooden shingles show this wear and tear, replace the individual shingles.

METAL ROOFS: Metal roofs are highly resistant to damage from the elements and may frequently last 40 years or more. They are highly fire resistant and require little maintenance. Small damaged areas can be repaired with patches of similar metal. The materials used in a metal roof may include copper, tin, steel, aluminum, lead or an alloy combination of one or more of these metals.

TILE, SLATE AND COMPOSITES: Roofs made of slate or tiles composed of either clay or concrete are perhaps the longest lasting available. They frequently survive more than 50 years, and normally require

little or no maintenance. In addition these materials are extremely fire resistant. When one of these roofs does need replacement, however, the cost can be very high. Tiles offer comparable benefits to slate but come in a more decorative and cosmetically-pleasing variety of colors, textures, shapes and sizes. Tiles can be glazed or unglazed. Slate typically comes in only black, grey or dark red.

Types of Roof Coatings

Roof coating has become an effective and popular method of extending the life of a roof. It can add protection against weather and fire, may increase energy efficiency and can even be used to change a roof’s color. But is is no substitute for repairs to a defective or worn out roof. Consequently, roof coatings should be applied before any serious roof deterioration occurs.

Maintenance roof coatings or cold process roof coatings are ready-to-use protective coatings for roofs and other areas exposed to the elements. They come in a liquid or semi-liquid state and are applied by brush, roller or spray. Roof coating professionals generally use coating materials that can be grouped into the following five categories:

Asphalt-Base Coatings: Asphalt-Base Coatings come in three different types: emulsion, solvent or aluminum pigmented. Emulsion Type Coating is adaptable over asphalt built-up roofs, metal roofs and those similarly composed, provided there is adequate drainage. When applied in the proper thickness, it chalks slowly and doesn’t blister. It can be applied over a damp surface and will not flow under heat. It does require temperature and humidity conditions that permit thorough water evaporation before the coating can be subjected to rainfall, freezing, or standing water.

Emulsion coating requires a clean and a primed surface for good adhesion. Solvent Type Coating can be applied over asphalt, composition, asbestos-cement, metal and masonry roof surfaces. It can be applied on a clean, dry surface over a wide temperature range and is relatively free of wash-off problems after a short drying period. It has good water resistance and may not require a primed surface for good adhesion. Solvent coating may flow under extreme heat and is combustible. It is susceptible to blistering if applied over a damp surface or any material containing moisture.

Aluminum Pigmented Coating: consists of flake aluminum particles dispersed in solvent type asphalt coatings. It can be applied over asphalt, composition or metal roofs having adequate drainage and provides a reflective or decorative surface. The coating’s reflectivity helps improve a buildings energy efficiency by deflecting ultraviolet rays and reducing the roof’s temperature. The cost of this coating is higher than most and its applications over low melt asphalt roofs can result in discoloration and scaling. It is susceptible to blistering if applied over a damp surface or any material containing moisture.

ALKY-BASE COATINGS: Alkyd-base coatings can be applied over metal, composition or masonry roofs that have adequate drainage. They perform the same functions as aluminum pigmented coating. Although alkyd-base coatings cost more, they are often selected because of their decorative versatility. They will not flow under heat and are susceptible to blistering if applied over any damp material. Alkyd-base coatings tend to discolor and/or split when applied over low melting point asphalt and are combustible.

Acrylic Latex Coating: Acrylic latex coating comes in liquid form and is available in various colors; white being the most common. White and other light colors reflect the sunlight, keeping the interior of a building cooler and conserving energy during warmer months.

Refined Coal Tar Coating: Refined coal tar coating is used for re-coating tar and gravel roofs. In preparation, the gravel must be removed and roof surface broom cleaned. Proper protection requires

approximately seven gallons per 100 square feet, and gravel should be re-applied over the coating. It is self-heating at warm temperatures, is very water resistant and can be used where the roof is subject to standing water. Refined coal tar tends to be brittle in cold weather, and its use is restricted to relatively flat roofs.

Flexible Ceramic Coating: Flexible Ceramic Coating is a relatively new addition to the roof coating business. The primary attraction of a ceramic coating is its insulation properties that allow for energy efficiency. As a result of its flexible nature, ceramic coatings help seal cracks and hide surface flaws. It has proven particularly popular in warmer climates.

The Roof Inspection

Some roofing contractors provide inspection service free-of-charge in an effort to solicit work. You should expect a roofing inspector to pay close attention to roof penetrations, flashings and distress areas such as blisters, curling and cracks.

Tell the inspector about any problems you yourself may have noticed; particularly during the rainy or snowy seasons. Materially sound - not currently in need of repair or maintenance work. In need of patchwork and coating. Requires resurfacing with a new membrane. Deteriorated to the extent that it requires total removal and replacement.

Do-It-Best-Yourself Mold Solutions

Phil can help you fix your own property’s mold problems at low-cost, more safely, and better-in- results than what is done by many mold inspectors and mold contractors.  How can Phil help you?

     1. Read Phil’s five plain-English,
mold advice books to master mold inspection, testing, removal, remediation, and prevention for your house, condo, apartment, office,  or workplace.

     2. Buy do-it-yourself, affordable mold test kits, mold lab analysis, video inspection scope, mold cleaner, and mold killer, for the  successful toxic and household mold inspection, mold testing, mold species identification and quantification, mold cleaning, mold removal, and mold remediation to find mold, kill mold, clean mold, and remove mold from your residence or commercial building.

     3. Get FREE mold advice, mold help, and/or answers to your mold questions, by emailing mold expert Phillip Fry at You can also email pictures of your mold problems in jpeg file format as email attachments.

[Home] [Repair or Replace It?] [Electrical Repair] [Drywall] [Heat Air] [Roofing] [Door Repair] [Gutters] [Window Repair] [Kitchen Remodel] [Toilet Repair] [Carpet Repair] [Appliances] [Plumbing] [Home Repair Glossary] [Home Security] [Wood Refinishing] [Home Safety] [Electrical Repair] [Attic Repair] [Deck Cleaning] [Door Repair] [Concrete Repair] [Home Heating Tips] [Laminate Floors] [Wallpaper Repair] [Painting Interiors] [Painting Exteriors] [Building Book Cases] [Winter Fire Prevention Advice] [Search] [Bathroom Remodel] [Drywall] [Air Duct Cleaning] [About-Us] [Contact Us] [Link-Directory]


Helpful Environmental & Health Websites
| Mold Attorney | Caribbean Mold InspectionCertified Hygienists DirectoryCertified Mold Inspectors Directory | Condominium Mold Inspection | Environmental ProductsEnvironmental Hygienist Training | Factory Mould Inspection |Government Building Mold InspectionHospital Mold InspectionHotel Mold Inspection | Inspector Del MoldeLos Angeles Mold Inspection | |Miami Mold TestingMold Inspector Training | Mold Inspection | Mold Inspector | Mold Inspector Training | Mold Products and Services |Mold School | Mold TrainingMold Training And Certification | Office Mold Inspection | Orange County Mold InspectionPublic Building Mold Inspection | Sacramento Mold Inspection | San Diego Home Inspection | San Diego Mold Inspection | San Francisco Mold Inspection | San Jose Mold Inspection | School Mold Inspection | Senior Housing Mold Inspection |Store Mold InspectionToxic Mold Inspection | Toxic Mold Inspector | Warehouse Mold Inspection | Natural Supplements | Dietary Supplements | Male Performance Supplement | Tongkat Ali | Hong Kong Sex Pills | China Mould Testing | Air Conditioning Mold | Mold Test Kits | Ozone Blasting | Ozone Generator | Household Mold Removal | Workplace Mold | Mold Health | Mold Remediation Safety Gear |

Find Hidden Toxic Mold Growth by inspecting inside walls, ceilings, and heating/cooling ducts and equipment with your own Video PRO Inspection Scope


Buy Boric Acid as a Non-Toxic and Natural
 Way To Remove, Kill and Prevent Household Mold and Toxic Mold, as well as Kill Cockroaches



Do-It-Best-Yourself Mold Solutions

Phil can help you fix your own property’s mold problems at low-cost, more safely, and better-in- results than what is done by many mold inspectors and mold contractors.  How can Phil help you?

     1. Read Phil’s five plain-English,
mold advice books to master mold inspection, testing, removal, remediation, and prevention for your house, condo, apartment, office,  or workplace.

     2. Buy do-it-yourself, affordable mold test kits, mold lab analysis, video inspection scope, mold cleaner, mold killer,
and a mold-killing high ozone generator for the  successful toxic and household mold inspection, mold testing, mold species identification and quantification, mold cleaning, mold removal, and mold remediation to find mold, kill mold, clean mold, and remove mold from your residence or commercial building.

     3. Get FREE mold advice, mold help, and/or answers to your mold questions, by emailing mold expert Phillip Fry at . You can also email pictures of your mold problems in jpeg file format as email attachments.

Home | Site  Map | Private Policy | Search | Contact Us | Links Directory | Ecotour/Travel Guide

Air Condition Information | Air Duct Cleaning | Appliance Repair and Remodel |Attic Repair |Bathroom Repair and Remodel |
Carpet Repair  | Concrete Repair Maintenance | Deck Cleaning | Door Repair | Electrical Repair | Gutter Repair and Remodel |
Home Heating Tips | Home Security | Home Safety | Kitchen Repair and Remodel | Laminate | Painting Exteriors |
Painting Interiors  | Plumbing Repair and Remodel | Roof Repair and Remodel | Toilet Repair and Remodel | Wall and Ceiling | Window Repair | Wood Refinishing |
Visa for USA Immigration |  Marriage Matchmaking Service | FREE Mold Advice Hotline


This website is owned and operated by Health & Wealth Guardian, LLT. Copyright©2002-2013 All Rights Reserved.